The Vision 2029 for the water sector of Andhra Pradesh is to provide access to reliable, affordable, sustainable and quality water supply by optimally conserving allocated water resources. It is aimed to fulfill drinking, irrigation, industrial, and environmental needs through efficient utilization of water resources.
Andhra Pradesh is currently the lowest riparian for 12 inter-state rivers, which implies possibility of a deficit monsoon due to delayed and insufficient inflows, and also hazards of floods. The state is mainly dependent on the Krishna and Godavari Rivers.
Currently, water utilization is skewed towards irrigation sector. For Andhra Pradesh to move towards more industrial economy, appropriate water allocations need to be made for each sector due to which improving water use efficiency in the state is a priority area for the GoAP. The target is to increase the water use efficiency in agriculture to 60% by 2029.
An as-in-assessment of the state reveals that it is lacking on some parameters such as efficiency, recycling of wastewater, full coverage of rural and urban areas with drinking water, technology, and demand management, amongst others:
Low Water Efficiency and Productivity: Currently, 96% of the water in the state is used for irrigation; domestic drinking water use is about 3.25%, while only 0.6% is utilized by industries. Consistent with the water use patterns of developed nations, the largest growth for demand is expected to be in the industrial sector for the state, which is expected to increase ten times, i.e., from the current 0.17 BCM to 1.78 BCM. Water productivity is also less which requires increasing the water efficiency in each sector, and by reallocating water to more productive sectors to meet confronting demands.
Need for Demand Side Management: AP has set targets of 55 lpcd (litres per capita daily) for rural and 135 lpcd for urban areas. Coverage of rural and urban population with drinking water remains low and needs to be increased.
Low Recycling and Reuse of Wastewater: Recycling and reusing of waste water stands at only 10%. There is a need to maximize recycling through regulation and enforcement of standards for reuse and disposal of wastes, and developing R & D for low cost, environmentally sound, energy saving techniques of treatment, and disposal (especially in coastal regions) with full cost recovery from wastewater.
Strengthen Policies and Institutions: There is a need to invest in strengthening policies and governance, and building robust institutions and moving on to actual practice and management of water resources. Since the existing water policy is relevant for the combined state, there needs to be a revision of the water policy is needed to suit the current requirements.
Manage and Mitigate Adverse Effects of Climate Change on Water Resources: A robust infrastructure needs to be built to mitigate the effect of natural calamities such as droughts and floods which can be the result of climate change. There needs to be physical flood protection measures and institutional mechanisms for flood monitoring and management.
Need to Upgrade Technology: Existing technology is not in par with global practices and engineering techniques adopted for water conservation, hence there is a need to upgrade existing technology.
Depleting Aquifers and Groundwater: 37.6% area (of total gross irrigated area) was irrigated by groundwater in 2014. The actual groundwater balance resource available for further utilization is only 10% of the available potential. The state is confronted with the issues of depleting aquifers and water quality issues such as fluoride contamination, or saline intrusion in groundwater.
2.Strategies suggested in the sector paper:
The sector paper delineates the strategic interventions to be adopted in order to achieve the Vision 2029 targets.
State government’s initiative in the area of sustainable water management “Neeru-Chettu” programme, which focuses on promoting water conservation, water management and green cover improvement.
“20 Non-negotiable” and “Smart Village and Smart Ward” and “NTR Sujala Pathakam” initiatives, aims to provide 100 percent coverage of safe drinking water through piped supply to all households and to eliminate open defecation.
One of the 5 proposed grids is the “Water Grid which will have a crucial role in realizing access to safe drinking water for all households by 2019.
Other strategic initiatives such as Andhra Pradesh Micro Irrigation Project, Andhra Pradesh Drought Adaptation Initiative, AP Community Based Tank Management Project, and Andhra Pradesh Farmer Managed Groundwater Systems.
Enforcement of legislation for regulation of groundwater and implementing quotas for sustainable abstraction in watersheds, water audit, technology up gradation and initiation of best practices.
3.Key Targets and Numbers:
|Projections for water demand sector wise (BCM)|
|Indicator||As on 2015||2029|
|Urban Water Supply (BCM)||0.47||1.19|
|Rural Water Supply (BCM)||0.43||0.82|
|Industrial Supply (BCM)||0.17||1.78|
|Maximize storage (BCM)||28.08||31.77|
|Improve Water Use Efficiency in irrigated agriculture||29%||60%|
|Improve Water Use Efficiency in Industries (Rs. / TMC)||17,870||23,580|
|Recycle and Reuse of domestic water||10%||80%|
|Rural Population covered with drinking water||35%||100%|
|Urban Population covered with drinking water||88%||100%|
|Habitations protected from geogenic contamination||2%||100%|